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All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE disclosures form.
The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
Supported by the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (grant nos: P30EY01583-26, 5T35DK060441-10, and UL1RR02499); and the Richard Shafritz Chair in Ophthalmology Research. The sponsor or funding organization had no role in the design or conduct of this research.
HUMAN SUBJECTS: Human subjects were included in this study. The study was considered exempt by the institutional review board of Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and conducted in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and Declaration of Helsinki. The requirement for informed consent was waived because of the retrospective nature of the study.
No animal subjects were included in this study.
Conception and design: Schein, Ying, Binenbaum
Analysis and interpretation: Schein, Yu, Ying, Binenbaum
Data collection: Schein, Binenbaum
Obtained funding: N/A
Overall responsibility: Schein, Yu, Ying, Binenbaum