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Detection of Progressive Glaucomatous Optic Nerve Damage on Fundus Photographs with Deep Learning

  • Felipe A. Medeiros
    Correspondence
    Correspondence: Felipe A. Medeiros, MD, PhD, Duke Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, 2351 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705.
    Affiliations
    Vision, Imaging and Performance Laboratory (VIP), Duke Eye Center and Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
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  • Alessandro A. Jammal
    Affiliations
    Vision, Imaging and Performance Laboratory (VIP), Duke Eye Center and Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
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  • Eduardo B. Mariottoni
    Affiliations
    Vision, Imaging and Performance Laboratory (VIP), Duke Eye Center and Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
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      Purpose

      To investigate whether predictions of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness obtained from a deep learning model applied to fundus photographs can detect progressive glaucomatous changes over time.

      Design

      Retrospective cohort study.

      Participants

      Eighty-six thousand one hundred twenty-three pairs of color fundus photographs and spectral-domain (SD) OCT images collected during 21 232 visits from 8831 eyes of 5529 patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspects.

      Methods

      A deep learning convolutional neural network was trained to assess fundus photographs and to predict SD OCT global RNFL thickness measurements. The model then was tested on an independent sample of eyes that had longitudinal follow-up with both fundus photography and SD OCT. The ability to detect eyes that had statistically significant slopes of SD OCT change was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The repeatability of RNFL thickness predictions was investigated by measurements obtained from multiple photographs that had been acquired during the same day.

      Main Outcome Measures

      The relationship between change in predicted RNFL thickness from photographs and change in SD OCT RNFL thickness over time.

      Results

      The test sample consisted of 33 466 pairs of fundus photographs and SD OCT images collected during 7125 visits from 1147 eyes of 717 patients. Eyes in the test sample were followed up for an average of 5.3 ± 3.3 years, with an average of 6.2 ± 3.8 visits. A significant correlation was found between change over time in predicted and observed RNFL thickness (r = 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70–0.80; P < 0.001). Retinal nerve fiber layer predictions showed an ROC curve area of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.83–0.88) to discriminate progressors from nonprogressors. For detecting fast progressors (slope faster than 2 μm/year), the ROC curve area was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94–0.98), with a sensitivity of 97% for 80% specificity and 85% for 90% specificity. For photographs obtained at the same visit, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.946 (95% CI, 0.940–0.952), with a coefficient of variation of 3.2% (95% CI, 3.1%–3.3%).

      Conclusions

      A deep learning model was able to obtain objective and quantitative estimates of RNFL thickness that correlated well with SD OCT measurements and potentially could be used to monitor for glaucomatous changes over time.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve), CI (confidence intervals), CoV (coefficient of variation), ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient), MD (mean deviation), M2M (machine-to-machine), PSD (pattern standard deviation), ResNet (residual deep neural network), ROC (receiver operating characteristic), RNFL (retinal nerve fiber layer), SD (spectral-domain)
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