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Macular Thickness as a Potential Biomarker of Mild Alzheimer's Disease

      Although several postmortem findings in the retina of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are available,
      • Hinton D.R.
      • Sadun A.A.
      • Blanks J.C.
      • et al.
      Optic-nerve degeneration in Alzheimer's disease.
      new biomarkers for early diagnosis and follow-up of AD are still lacking. It has been postulated that the defects in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) may be the earliest sign of AD, even before damage to the hippocampal region that affects memory.
      • He X.F.
      • Liu Y.T.
      • Peng C.
      • et al.
      Optical coherence tomography assessed retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis.
      This fact may reflect retinal neuronal-ganglion cell death and axonal loss in the optic nerve in addition to aging.
      • Hinton D.R.
      • Sadun A.A.
      • Blanks J.C.
      • et al.
      Optic-nerve degeneration in Alzheimer's disease.
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